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Biodiversity is the distribution and number, variety and variability of living organisms over time. Biodiversity may be diversity within species (genetic diversity), between species (species diversity), and between ecosystems (ecosystem diversity).
Biodiversity includes all ecosystems—wild lands, nature preserves, or national parks, plantations, farms, croplands, aquaculture sites, rangelands and urban parks too have their own biodiversity. Loss in biodiversity has direct and indirect negative effects on Food security, Vulnerability, Health, Energy security, Clean water and Social relations.
The biodiversity is under threat all over the world. Western Ghats and northeast is rich in biodiversity, they have a rich variety of vegetation as well as animals. Certain species fear a threat of decline due to day by day contracting habitats, habitat quality and hunting of some mammals.
Fragmentation of habitats and the sharp decline in small sub populations of plants and animals bring them on the edge of decline. Species already restricted to a small area are more prone to extinction according to the final technical report of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.
All the 18 domestic poultry breeds are under threat and around 40 species of plants and animals have extincted. The country has lost about 40% of its mangroves and some crucial part of its wetlands. Measures like establishing crop gene banks, seed banks and biodiversity knowledge registers are needed to curb the loss of biodiversity.