Tipu Sultan was the ruler of the Sultanate of Mysore. Tipu Sultan was also known as the Tiger of Mysore, “Sultan Fateh Ali Khan Saheb”, “Tipu Saheb” “Bahadur Khan Tipu Sultan”, and “Fatih Ali Khan Tipu Sultan Bahadur”. As an administrator he built roads, pubic buildings and ports along the Kerala shoreline. He started new coinage, calendar, and new systems of weight and measures, new government departments. He strengthened the education system in Persian and Urdu among the Muslims in Mysore. He was also a scholar and a poet. Tipu Sultan also made military innovations in the use of rocketry. Two of the rockets are displayed in the Royal Artillery Museum in London.
Life of Tipu Sultan
Tipu Sultan was born on November 20, 1750 at Devanahalli in Bangalore. He was the son of Hyder Ali and Fatima. Tipu sultan was instructed in military tactics by French officers. He accompanied his father in the First battle of Mysore in 1766 against the British. He had 4 wives. He was defeated in the Fourth battle of Anglo-Mysore war and was killed on May 4, 1799.
Tipu Sultan as an Emperor
Tipu sultan took over the rule of the kingdom after the death of his father. As a warrior he defeated the Marathas, the Nizams and British. He was an independent ruler of the Sultanate of Mysore with some degree of loyalty to the Mughal emperor Shah Alam II. Tipu sultan distinguished himself in the First Anglo Maratha War. Tipu Sultan was victorious in the second Anglo-Mysore War against the British. He gained enough military experience by the time his father died. After the death of his father he was sworn in as the king. He by this time was aware that the British were the most dangerous threat to India. He now worked to stop the advancement of the British and made alliance with the Marathas and the Mughals. He also maintained correspondence with the Ottaman rulers, made alliance with Napoleon and particularly the French to fight against the British East India Company.
In the Second Anglo-Mysore War he negotiated the 1784 Treaty of Mangalore. In the Third Anglo-Mysore War he made peace and lost a number of territories, including Malabar and Mangalore. Tipu Sultan was, however, defeated in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War.
Tipu Sultan as an Administrator
Tipu Sultan’s s domain included the Nandi Hills, Kanivenarayanapura and Chickballapur. His trade extended to countries including Sri Lanka, Oman, Afghanistan, France, Turkey and Iran. He was a staunch believer of the Muslim faith. It was Tipu Sultan who built the first church in Mysore. As an administrator he laid the foundation of a dam where the Krishna Raja Sagara Dam was later built. He also built roads, pubic buildings and ports along the Kerala shoreline. He started new coinage, calendar, and new systems of weight and measures, new government departments. Tipu sultan developed an advanced navy for the Mysore Sultanate.
He was well versed in Urdu, Persian, Kannada and Arabic. He strengthened the education system in Persian and Urdu among the Muslims in Mysore. He was also a scholar and a poet.
Tipu Sultan also made military innovations in the use of rocketry. His father made contributions in the innovation of rocketry. Tipu advanced the process initiated by his father. The rockets deployed by Tipu were very advanced considered by the British. He invented the war rockets. Two of the rockets are displayed in the Royal Artillery Museum in London.
Tipu Sultan Tiger of Mysore
Tipu Sultan was also known as the Tiger of Mysore. He used to adopt animals as the symbol of his rule. It is said that once Tipu Sultan was hunting in a forest. He came into contact with a tiger and it attacked upon him. Tipu Sultan killed the tiger with his dragger. From then onwards he is known as the Tiger of Mysore. He had French engineers build a mechanical tiger for his palace. Known as Tipu’s Tiger it is on display in the Victoria and Albert museum in London. He had also emblem of a tiger on his banners and arms and weapons.
Works on Tipu Sultan
Many works were made on the life of Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan’s life and adventures were part of the television series “The sword of Tipu Sultan”. The novels “Muazam Ali and Aur Talvar Tut Gaye”, “The Moonstone”, “The Surprising Adventures”, “Sharpe’s Tiger”, “The Only King Who Died on the Battlefield: an Historical Novel Based on Truth” describe Tipu Sultan.
The sword of Tipu Sultan which was lost in a war and went to London and later displayed and auctioned was purchased by Indian industrialist Vijay Mallya. Tipu Sultan had French engineers build a mechanical tiger for his palace. Known as Tipu’s Tiger it is on display in the Victoria and Albert museum in London.