Profile of India
Long years ago, we made a tryst with destiny and now the time comes when we shall redeem our pledge... At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will awake to life and freedom.' – Jawaharlal Nehru
Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first Prime Minister ushered India’s independence on 15th August, 1947, from the long standing British rule. India now stands tall as one of the most developed countries of South Asia and a country known for its economic , defense and political powers.
Administration of India
Indian has a parliamentary system of government. As laid down by the constitution, India is a "Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic" The President of India is the head of the country while the real powers lie with the Prime Minister who along with his Council of ministers govern the country. The elections are held every 5 years unless it is dissolved earlier. The current President of India is Shri Pranab Mukherjee and the Prime Minister is Shri Narendra Modi.
Republic of India; Bharat Ganrajya
Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic with a Parliamentary system of Government.
29 States and 7 Union Territories.
15th August 1947 (From the British Colonial Rule)
The Constitution of India came into force on 26th January 1950.
The President of India is the Head of the State, while the
Prime Minister is the Head of the Government, and runs office with the
support of the Council of Ministers who form the Cabinet Ministry.
The Indian Legislature comprises of the Lok Sabha (House of the
People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) forming both the Houses
of the Parliament.
The Supreme Court of India is
the apex body of the Indian legal system, followed by other High Courts
and subordinate Courts.
The National Flag is a
horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (kesaria) at the top, white in the
middle, and dark green at the bottom in equal proportion. At the centre
of the white band is a navy blue wheel, which is a representation of the
Ashoka Chakra at Sarnath.
26th January (Republic Day
15th August (Independence Day
2nd October (Gandhi Jayanti
History of India
One of the oldest civilizations, which took birth on the banks of the river Indus, India is an eclectic mix of culture, people, mountains, rivers, flora and fauna. The Indus Valley Civilisation
which flourished around 2,500 BC is evident from the excavations of Harappa and Mohenjodaro. Over the years, undivided India was ruled, raided and attacked by several emperors and rulers, big and small. While it was Pallavas, Chalukyas, Cholas and Rashtrakutas who ruled most of the southern India, the northern and western India were ruled by the Marathas and later by the Mughals who spread its wings major parts of India. The Mughal dynasty
started declining after the death of Aurangzeb while it received its final blow in the hands of the British during Bahadur Shah Zafar’s reign. History of modern India
begins with the Revolt of 1857 which is also termed as India’s first war of Independence. The Revolt of 1857 also saw the end of East India Company’s rule and the beginning of the British monarchy. The foundation of the Indian freedom struggle picked up pace with the formation of the Indian National Movement that was laid by Surendranath Banerjee in 1876 with the establishment of the Indian Association in Calcutta in 1876 which actually was the forerunner of the Indian National Congress. With Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi becoming the undisputed leader of the Indian National Congress, the freedom movement gained momentum though only after giving some heavy sacrifices which included the partition of India.
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Geography of India
"So far as I am able to judge, nothing has been left undone, either by man or nature, to make India the most extraordinary country that the sun visits on his rounds. Nothing seems to have been forgotten, nothing overlooked." – Mark Twain aptly describes India which is bounded by the mighty snow-capped Himalayas in the North and Indian Ocean to the South.
Covering an area of 3,287,590 sq. Km, India is bordered by Afghanistan and Pakistan to the north-west; China, Bhutan and Nepal to the north; Myanmar to the east; and Bangladesh to the east of West Bengal. The climatic variations
are as vast as its size. While it snows in Kashmir, loo and warm winds sweep the whole of North and part of Rajasthan during the summers. Mother Nature is at its furious best during June and October throughout the country when it is plagued by the south-west monsoon bringing heavy rainfall in almost all parts of the country.
Geography of India: Fast Facts
Geographic Coordinates: Lying entirely in the Northern Hemisphere, the Country extends between 8° 4' and 37° 6' latitudes north of the Equator, and 68° 7' and 97° 25' longitudes east of it.
Indian Standard Time GMT: + 05:30
Area: 3.3 Million sq. km
Telephone Country: Code +91
Climate: There are four seasons:
south-west monsoon season (June-September)
post monsoon season (October-November)
Natural Resources: Coal, iron ore, manganese ore, mica, bauxite, petroleum, titanium ore, chromite, natural gas, magnesite, limestone etc
Economy of India
India is now self-sufficient in agriculture and is one of important industrialised countries of the world. The country’s educated and skilled workforce contributes significantly to various other sectors like trade, banking, and software industries. Infosys, Tatas, Reliance, Godrej and Birla are only a few which have made the rest of the world sit up and recognise India as a global economic force. With the starting of the Five Year Plan in 1951, India’s economy received a boost with the focus now not only on agriculture but on manufacturing industries as well.
People and Culture of India
Discover India through its myriad expressions, remarkable sculptures, aesthetic cinematic language, beats of tabla and musical strings of tanpura, and poetic language. With nearly a population of more than a billion, the culture of India dates back to the Indus Valley Civilisation. India speaks twenty four different languages; English is the main language of communication across the length and breadth of the country. Though the dominant population are Hindus, yet a considerable part of India is populated by Muslims, Sikhs, Christians, Buddhists and Jains.
Population: India's population, as on 1 March 2011 stood at 1,210,193,422 (623.7 million males and 586.4 million females).
Population Growth Rate: The average annual exponential growth rate stands at 1.64 per cent during 2001-2011.
Birth Rate: The Crude Birth rate was 18.3 in 2009.
Death Rate: The Crude Death rate was 7.3 in 2009.
Life Expectancy Rate: 65.8 years (Males); 68.1 years (Females) in the period 2006-2011.
Sex Ratio: 940 females per 1000 males according to 2011 census
Ethnic Groups: All the five major racial types - Australoid, Mongoloid, Europoid, Caucasian, and Negroid find representation among the people of India.
Languages: There are 22 different languages that have been recognised by the Constitution of India, of which Hindi is an Official Language. Article 343(3) empowered Parliament to provide by law for continued use of English for official purposes.
Literacy: According to the provisional results of the 2011 census, the literacy rate in the Country stands at 74.04 per cent, 82.14% for males and 65.46% for females.
Tourism in India
For a personal discovery of India, a journey of the country is an absolute must! Whatever be your forte – adventure or luxury, wildlife
or sun and sand – India has options that few countries can match up to. Trek through the mythical and rugged terrains of Ladakh and Zaskar, feel like a prince in an enchanting camel safari in the Thar, be your romantic best in a moonlit Taj Mahal
, one of the seven wonders of the world, water-ski and enjoy the thrills in the beaches of Goa
or enjoy a breathtaking view of the Kanchenjunga from Darjeeling or watch the one-horned rhino in Kaziranga National Park
in Assam. And how can food and shopping be separated from travel and tourism in India! India is a shopper’s paradise – from street and bargain shopping in Mumbai
and Delhi to the malls in Bangalore and Delhi – India can never disappoint you! From kurtis, to gowns, from chappals to stilettos, from jholas to clutches from earrings to studs – India has a wonderful mix of desi and foreign goods. Taste buds are given a tickle from Kashmiri dum aloo to Kerala’s appam, from Mumbai’s vada pao to Kolkata’s fish fry, from Delhi’s ladoos to Mysore Pak to Kolkata’s rasgullas, from Hyderabad’s biriyani
to Kashmiri pulao – there is no end to India’s foodie delight
Transport in India
Incredible India - the name is true to its meaning when it comes to the varied modes of transport. A hand-pulled rickshaw, cattle-driven cart, a bicycle, trams and lorries and buses and aeroplanes and the Great Indian Railways – all uniting people from north to south, east to west. Enjoy a ride on Nilgiri Mountain Railways on your way to Ooty and the Toy Train in Darjeeling or live life king-size in Royal Rajasthan on Wheels
Sports in India
Love of sports is not uncommon in India though there is a long way to go when the medal tally of Olympics is concerned. India is a cricketing giant with legends like Gavaskar, Kapil Dev and Sachin Tendulkar known and respected in the world of cricket. Shooter Abhinav Bindra, chess champion Vishwanathan Anand, wrestler Sushil Kumar, athletic Milkha Singh and PT Usha are some names in the world of sports that make us proud.
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Health in India
Did you know that India medical tourism produces $2.3 Billion every year? Yes, as a country, India is one of the top favourites among patients from all over the world for medical treatment. People choose India for medical tourism not only because of its low cost but quality medical treatment by the top-notch doctors in AIIMS Delhi
, Netrayala in Chennai and Vellore Medical College
. People from abroad also also flock India for medical treatment
to some of the best hospitals across the country.
Last but not the least, India is what it is today because of its people. Though there have been ups and downs, natural calamities and terrorist attacks, India - a country for the people, of the people and by the people, will always stand among the powerful nations of the world.