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The Primary sector of the economy is the change of natural resources
into primary products. Most products from this sector provides raw
materials for other industries. The share of primary sector has
decreased from the past four decades. In 1970 the share of the sector
was 50% which has reduced to 29% in 1995 and is now further reduced to
25%. Major businesses in this sector are agriculture, agribusiness,
fishing, forestry, all mining and quarrying industries.
in India is the major sector of its economy. Almost two-thirds of the
total work-force earns their livelihood though farming and other allied
sectors like forestry, logging and fishing which account 18% of the
GDP. These sectors provide employment to 60% of the country’s total
population. About 43% of the country’s total geographical area is used
for agricultural purposes. After independence additional areas were
brought under cultivation and new methods, practices and techniques of
irrigation and farming were introduced by the government. The “Green
Revolution” and “Operation Flood” in the country have made India self
sufficient in producing food grains and milk. Among other things, the
government also tried to decrease the dependence on monsoons. Better
seeds, use of fertilizer, education of farmers and provision of
agricultural credit and subsidies are reasons for increase in
Today, India is the major producer
of milk, cashew nuts, coconuts, tea, ginger, turmeric and black pepper
in the whole world. It is the second largest producer of wheat, sugar,
groundnut and inland fish. It is the third largest producer of tobacco
and rice. India accounts for 10 per cent of the world fruit production
with first rank in the production of banana and sapota (Sapodilla).
in India is the responsibility of the states rather than the central
government. The central government formulates policy and provides
financial assistance to the states. States like Punjab, Haryana, Uttar
Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and West Bengal are
major producers of food grains in India. Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and
Kashmir are famous for fruit production. Tea is produced in the high
altitudes of Assam, Darjeeling in West Bengal, Tripura, Ooty in Tamil
Nadu, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala. Kerala is also the largest producer
of natural rubber and spices in India. Rajasthan is among the major
producers of edible oils in India and second largest producer of oil
seeds. Production of non-conventional items like moong (a type of
lentil), soyabeans and peanuts are gradually gaining importance.
though there has been a steady decline in its share in the GDP,
agriculture still remains the largest economic sector and plays a
crucial role in the socio-economic development of the country.
Fish breeding has increased almost five times since India got independence and is a prime industry in coastal regions.
economic zone of India runs up to Indian ocean (370 Km) covering an
area more than 2 million square kilometers. Approximately 4.5 million
ton catches are expected from that area. India has about 14000 Km2
brackish water for aquaculture, out of which 600 Km2 were being farmed
in early 1990s; about 16,000 Km2 of freshwater lakes, ponds and swamps;
and nearly 64,000 kilometers of rivers and streams.
is the term used for the extraction of useful material from the
treatment of ore, vein or coal seam. Materials obtained from extraction
may be base metals, precious metals, iron, uranium, coal, diamonds,
limestone, oil shale, rock salt and potash. Any material obtained from
agriculture or cultured in laboratory requires to be mined.