Indian History Through Different Ages
History of the Indian sub continent is the most affluent and prosperous in the world with its origin traced beyond 5000 years. Indian subcontinent is one of the ancient lands with its rich cultural heritage and glorious past. It is assumed by the historians that the first human being migrated to India long back in 200000 B.C, even the time beyond the age of written history.
Historians believe that the prehistoric period of India falls between 200000 B.C. to 3500 – 2500 B.C. when the origin of Indians can be first traced. This entire period can be broadly classified as Paleolithic or Old Stone Age
, Mesolithic or Middle Stone Age
, Neolithic or New Stone Age
after which the Chalcolithic period started in India. The prehistoric age in India witnessed extensive use of stone weapons and tools and towards the end of period the people also started cultivation of variety of crops like wheat and millet. Rock art painting in some of the popular archeological sites in India like Bhimpetka in Madhya Pradesh are proof of prehistoric people in India, their life and culture.
Ancient India (3300 B.C-1200 A.D)
The history of ancient India
can be traced to the Indus Valley Civilization – the first important civilisation of India which flourished in the north-western part of the Indian subcontinent. Around 1500 BC, the Aryans soon started penetrating along the Ganga and Yamuna rivers which also saw the birth of the Vedic age. The ancient period of India is laced with numerous independent empires till the rise of the Mauryas
. Ancient India witnessed the Golden age of Indian history
during the Gupta period where India achieved several marvels in fields of literature, science, philosophy and mathematics.
Medieval India (8th Century AD to 16th Century)Medieval Indian history
begins with the fall of the Gupta Empire and the rise of the Rajputs in North India The Rajputs in the north were a force to reckon with Prithvi Raj Chauhan known for bloody conflicts against the Islamic invaders. The period was dominated by the Cholas, the Palas, Rashtrakutas and the Chalukyas. It was during this time that the Turks invaded India not only for the purpose of looting the wealth but with the idea of establishing their kingdom. Subsequently, the Slave Dynasty
managed to conquer a major part of the north India and the Khiljis lay their strength on central India. The Mughal period which forms major part of the medieval age is one of the most important periods of Indian history. Though there were several Hindu and Muslim kingdoms across the country, it was the Mughals who brought the almost the whole of India under a single rule. The Mughal period
is also considered one of the golden periods in terms of art and architecture as it was during this time, that the country received some of its finest monuments including the Taj Mahal in Agra.
Modern India (17th Century till Independence)
With the gradual decline of the Mughal Empire, various European trading companies tried to establish their foot on Indian soil. The colonial era
began in the 15th century began with the arrival of many European traders like Dutch, Portuguese, and the British. However, it was the British
who ruled India for more than two centuries. The anti-India policies of the British saw the Indian uprising and also witnessed the birth of the Indian nationalist movement. The anti-British struggle grew stronger and finally became a mass movement led by Mahatma Gandhi and other prominent Indian rulers. Continuous campaigns and agitations by the Indians were finally successful in driving the British away from the Indian soil. The Indians finally gained freedom on 15th August 1947, but paid a heavy price with the partition of the country and birth of a new nation, Pakistan. India became a sovereign republic on 26th January, 1950 with the birth of the Indian Constitution.