Independence Movement in India
In ancient times, Aryans, Persians, Iranians and Parsis came from all
over the world and settled down in India. Then Moghuls followed them and
settled down in India. Chengis Khan, the Mongolian, invaded and looted
India many times.
Alexander the Great too, came to conquer India but
went back after a battle with Porus. He-en Tsang from China came in
pursuit of knowledge and to visit the ancient Indian universities of
Nalanda and Takshila.
Columbus wanted to come to India, but instead
landed on the shores of America. Vasco da Gama from Portugal came to
trade his country's goods in return for Indian species. The French came
and established their colonies in India.
Lastly, the Britishers
came and ruled over India for nearly 200 years. After the battle of
Plassey in 1757, the British achieved political power in India. And
their paramountcy was established during the tenure of Lord Dalhousie,
who became the Governor- General in 1848.
He annexed Punjab, Peshawar
and the Pathan tribes in the north-west of India. And by 1856, the
British conquest and its authority were firmly established.
the British power gained its heights during the middle of the 19th
century, the discontent of the local rulers, the peasantry, the
intellectuals, common masses as also of the soldiers who became
unemployed due to the disbanding of the armies of various states that
were annexed by the British, became widespread. This soon broke out into
a revolt which assumed the dimensions of the 1857 Mutiny.
National Congress was formed in 1876 by A.O. Hume brought educated
middle-class into politics. The first session of the Indian National
Congress was held in Bombay in December 1885 under the president ship of
Womesh Chandra Banerjee.
The Indian National Movement was founded by
Suredranath Banerjee. "Swadeshi Movement" launched by Bal Gangadhar
Tilak asked for ‘Swaraj’.
A barbaric massacre took place in
Jallianwala Bagh near Amritsar on April 13, 1919. The people of Punjab
gathered to celebrate Baisakhi there. Then suddenly General Dyer came
along with his army and ordered to fire on all the people.
man, women and children were killed. Non violent protest against British
Government started in the entire nation. Thus Non-cooperation Movement
was started in 1920.
This freedom struggle made the Indians aware about
the fact that British government can be opposed if the opposition is
carried out actively and that will keep a check on them. Educational
institutions and foreign goods were boycotted.
Government sent Simon Commission to India in 1927 to study the
constitutional reform. The commission consisted of a group of seven
Britishers and no Indian was included. It brought a storm of protests
all over the country. Civil Disobedience Movement was launched under the
leadership of Mahatma Gandhi.
A complete disobedience of the orders of
the British Government was decided. During this movement British
Government decided to give independence to India on 26th January. Cripps Mission was organized in late March 1942.
launched the mission to secure Indian cooperation and support for their
efforts in World War II (1939-1945). The mission was headed by Sir
Stafford Cripps. The mission was formed to negotiate with the
Indian National Congress to obtain total co-operation during the war, in
return of progressive devolution and distribution of power from the
crown and the Viceroy to elected Indian legislature.
talks failed, having failed to address the key demand of a time frame
towards self-government, and of definition of the powers to be
relinquished, essentially portraying an offer of limited dominion-status
that was wholly unacceptable to the Indian movement.
The Quit India Movement of 1942 brought entire nation
together for freeing India from the shackles of British. It was a call
for immediate independence of India and the slogan of "Do or Die" was
After the Quit India Movement the freedom struggle got more
intense and passionate. People raised voice for Purna Swaraj or complete
independence. After much sacrifices and efforts, India gained
independence and unfurled its flag on the 15th August, 1947.