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Indian Association at Calcutta was the forerunner of the Indian National
Congress formed in 1876 by A.O. Hume. The Indian National Movement was
founded by Suredranath Banerjee. Indian National Congress (INC) founded
in 1885 brought educated middle-class into politics.
session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay in December
1885 under the presidentship of Womesh Chandra Banerjee and was attended
among others by and Badr-uddin-Tyabji.
By the century, "Swadeshi
Movement" was launched by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Aurobindo Ghose. The
Congress session at Calcutta in 1906, presided by Dadabhai Naoroji,
asked people for attaining 'Swaraj' within the British Dominion.
in 1909, the British Government announced certain reforms in the
structure of Government in India which are known as Morley-Minto
Reforms. But these reforms did not posed any advance towards the
establishment of a representative Government.
The provision of
special representation of the Muslim was considered as a threat to the
Hindu-Muslim unity. So, these reforms were fervently opposed by Muhammad
Ali Jinnah and all the leaders. Subsequently, King George V made two
announcements in Delhi: firstly, the partition of Bengal, and secondly,
the announcement of shifting the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi
The struggle for Swaraj got intensified due to
dissatisfaction from the reforms. While, on one side, the extremist led
by the great leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin
Chandra Pal waged a virtual war against the British, on the other side,
the revolutionaries stepped up their violent activities. There was a
widespread unrest in the country.
Rowlatt Act passed in 1919,
immediately after I World War empowered the Government to put people in
jail without trial. This caused massive demonstration and hartals, which
the Government repressed with brutal measures like the Jalliawalla Bagh
massacre, where thousand of people were gunned down on the order of
To divide the National movement, the British
adopted divide and rule policy, which led to the rise of Muslim League.
With Muslim league on their side the British always tried to stall all
the demands of the Indian National Congress. The Congress and the League
came together in 1916 AD but the treaty was short lived. With Mahatma
Gandhi at the helm of affairs the Congress launched many movements
against the British rule.