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Non-cooperation Movement is officially considered as the first movement
for Independence in India. The Movement was started in 1920. This non
violent protest in the entire nation was started by Mahatma Gandhi.
movement officially started the Gandhian era in India. This freedom
struggle made the Indians aware about the fact that British government
can be opposed if the opposition is carried out actively and that will
keep a check on them.
The Non-Cooperation Movement continued till
1922. Thus, educational institutions and foreign goods were boycotted.
Though the movement failed, Indians awakened to the concept of going
against the British.
Chauri Chaura Voilence
crowd of 2000 protestors marched towards the local market of Chauri
Chaura (a town near Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh) on and started shouting
anti-government slogans on February 4, 1922. Armed policemen were sent
to the city police station to control the situation.
started throwing stones at the armed policemen. Sub inspector ordered
the policemen to start firing on the crowd to control the situation.
Three protesters were killed on the spot and several others were
injured. The crowd became extremely violent by this and attacked the
police from all the sides. Twenty-two policemen were burnt alive,
including the station sub inspector.
The British government was
furious after this incident and imposed martial law in the city of
Chauri Chaura and surrounding areas.
British Government sent Simon Commission to India in 1927 to study the
constitutional reform and suggest further reforms in the structure of
Indian Government. The commission was formed with Sir John Simon as its
Chairman. The commission consisted of a group of seven Britishers and no
Indian was included.
It sparked a wave of protests all over the
country. The Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Congress
under the leadership of Lala Lajpat Rai boycotted it. The crowds were
lathi charged and Lala Lajpat Rai died of the blows of the lathi.