Indian National Congress - INC
Indian Association at Calcutta was the forerunner of the Indian National Congress formed in 1876 by A.O. Hume. The Indian National Movement was founded by Suredranath Banerjee. Indian National Congress (INC) founded in 1885 brought educated middle-class into politics.
The first session of the Indian National Congress was held in Bombay in December 1885 under the presidentship of Womesh Chandra Banerjee and was attended among others by and Badr-uddin-Tyabji.
By the century, "Swadeshi Movement" was launched by Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Aurobindo Ghose.
The Congress session at Calcutta in 1906, presided by Dadabhai Naoroji, asked people for attaining 'Swaraj' within the British Dominion.
Meanwhile, in 1909, the British Government announced certain reforms in the structure of Government in India which are known as Morley-Minto Reforms. But these reforms did not posed any advance towards the establishment of a representative Government.
The provision of special representation of the Muslim was considered as a threat to the Hindu-Muslim unity. So, these reforms were fervently opposed by Muhammad Ali Jinnah and all the leaders. Subsequently, King George V made two announcements in Delhi.
Firstly, the partition of Bengal, and secondly, the announcement of shifting the capital of India from Calcutta to Delhi was made.
One side, the extremist led by the great leaders like Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal waged a virtual war against the British, on the other side, the revolutionaries stepped up their violent activities. There was a widespread unrest in the country.
Rowlatt Act passed in 1919, immediately after I World War empowered the Government to put people in jail without trial.
This caused massive demonstration and hartals, which the Government repressed with brutal measures like the Jalliawalla Bagh massacre, where thousand of people were gunned down on the order of General Dyer.
To divide the National movement, the British adopted divide and rule policy, which led to the rise of Muslim League. With Muslim league on their side the British always tried to stall all the demands of the Indian National Congress.
The Congress and the League came together in 1916 AD but the treaty was short lived. With Mahatma Gandhi at the helm of affairs the Congress launched many movements against the British rule.