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The period between 1206 A.D. and 1526 A.D. in India's history is known as the Delhi Sultanate period.
Slave dynasty (1206 A.D. to 1290 A.D.)
Mohammad Ghori (a Turkish Invader) followed the footsteps of Mahammad Gazni carrying out invasions on the Indian subcontinent. He conquered Delhi and appointed his military slave Qutub-ud-din Aibak his lieutenant in India. The appointment of Qutub-ud-din Aibak marked the beginning of slave dynasty in India. The Slave dynasty also known as Mamluk Dynasty or Ghulam Dynasty was one of the first to rule India's Delhi Sultanate from 1206 to 1290. Qutub-ud-din Aibak was later followed by Iltutmish, Iltutmish’s daughter Razia and then Khilji dynasty.
Important Rulers of Slave Dynasty
Qutb-ud-din Aibak (1206–1210)
Aram Shah (1210–1211)
Shams ud din Iltutmish (1211–1236)
Rukn ud din Firuz (1236)
Raziyyat-ud-din Sultana (1236–1240)
Khilji dynasty (1290 A.D. to 1320 A.D.)
Khilji dynasty was the second Muslim dynasty who ruled the Delhi Sultanate of India from 1290 to 1320 over a large area in South Asia. Ikhtiar Uddin Muhammad bin Bakhtiar Khilji, a servant of Qutb-ud-din Aybak occupied Bihar and Bengal in the late 12th century. From this time, the Khiljis became servants and vassals of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi. The last Khalji, Qutb ud din Mubarak Shah, was killed by Khusraw Khan in 1320, who was succeeded by Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq, the first ruler of the Turkic Tughluq dynasty.
Important Rulers of Khilji Dynasty
Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji (1290–1296)
Alauddin Khalji (1296–1316)
Tughlaq dynasty (1321 A.D. to 1413 A.D.)
The Tughlaq Dynasty of north India came into existence in 1321 when Ghazi Tughlaq assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq. He was succeeded by his son Muhammad bin Tughlaq. Muhammad bin Tughlaq shifted the capital from Delhi to Daulatabad and introduced copper coins. After Muhammad bin Tughlaq, Feroz Shah Tughlaq assumed the throne.The Tughlaq dynasty started to fade out after the death of Feroz.
Important Rulers of Tuglaq Dynasty
Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq (1320–1325)
Muhammad bin Tughluq (1325–1351)
Firuz Shah Tughluq (1351–1388)
Nasir-ud-Din Mahmud Shah Tughluq (1393–1413)
Sayyid dynasty- (1414 A.D. to 1450 A.D)
The people from this dynasty called themselves as Sayyids, or descendants of Prophet Muhammad. Khizar Khan ruled for about 37 years. Khizer Khan was succeeded by his son Mubarrak Khan after his death. Last in Sayyid dynasty was Muhammad-bin-Farid. Many confusions and revolts arose during his reign.
Important Rulers of Sayyid Dynasty
Khizr Khan (1414–1421)
Mubarak Shah (1421–1434)
Lodhi dynasty (1451 A.D. to 1526 A.D.)
Lodhi Dynasty was a Khilji Afghan dynasty, who ruled from 1451 to 1526. Buhlul Khan Lodhi was the first king of Lodhi dynasty. He extended his territories over Gwalior, Jaunpur and Uttar Pradesh. His son Nizam Shah succeded him and was crowned the king, under the title of Sultan Sikander Shah, in 1489. He strengthened his kingdom and extended his kingdom from Punjab to Bihar. He was a good administrator and a patron of arts and letters.