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The entire Mughal sultanate broke down to five princely states as the empire declined. Many small kingdoms came into existence after the Mughal era.
Kingdom of Oudh (Awadh)
Awadh was an important province of Mughal empire. Kingdom of Oudh was a rich kingdom because of its geographical position; it has an advantage for trade and commerce. As power of Mughals diminished; gradually Oudh became an independent kingdom.
The Maratha Empire was the strongest kingdom from all the kingdoms that emerged after the Mughals started to decline. The empire was founded by the great warrior Chatrapati Shivaji during the year 1674. The Marathas were in power from 1674 to 1818. The Marathas were skillful warriors and were fiercely possessive about their land.
This kingdom covered almost the whole of the Indian sub continent. But it was short lived empire as the Afghan army of Ahmed Shah Abdali invaded the empire and defeated it.
Kingdom of Mysore
Mysore kingdom was founded by the Wodeyar dynasty around 1400 A.D in southern India. Their empire was controlled by Hyder Ali from 1761; later his son Tipu Sultan succeeded him. Tipu Sultan fought many battles against British forces and died in fourth Anglo-Mysore war fought in Srirangpatanam in 1799.
In the meantime, the province of Hyderabad was detained by Asif Jah.Hyderabad and Mysore became princely states during British rule.
Kingdom of Punjab
The kingdom of Punjab extended from the Indus to Lamghan on the one side, and from Kashmir to Multan on the other. The kingdom was ruled by Sikh community. Punjab was among the last areas to be conquered by the British. Constant wars with the British weakened the empire and resulted in its downfall.