Development of Science and Technology in India

The history of philosophy, scientific discoveries and development in India dates back to the Vedic era. It is believed that, ancient Indian scholars had developed geometric theorems before Pythagoras who did it in the sixth century B.C. The concept of squares, rectangles, circles, triangles, fractions, and the ability to express the number ten to the twelfth power, algebraic formulas, and astronomy have all their origins in Vedic literature; some are as early as 1500 B.C. The decimal system was already in use during the Harappan civilization. This is evident in their use of weights and measures.

Moreover, the concepts of astronomy, metaphysics, and perennial movement are all embodied in the Rig Veda. Although the Chinese used a decimal based counting system, it was the formal notational system of the Indians that reached the west through the Arabs.

India’s development in the field of science and technology was substantial from British period. In 1947, when India got its independence, the process of development was further enhanced by receiving funds from the government. Today for the government, science and technology is an important part of its five-year plans.

Today, one can easily realize that India has achieved significant success in varied fields of science and technology in global arena. India can boast of leading scientists and their path breaking research. The government-sponsored scientific and technical developments have aided research in diverse areas such as agriculture, medical, biotechnology, cold regions research, communications, environment, industry, mining, nuclear power, space, and transportation..

Now India has expertise in the fields of astronomy and astrophysics, liquid crystals, condensed matter physics, molecular biology, virology, and crystallography, software technology, nuclear power and defense research and development.

India’s technological discoveries in the fields of pharmacology, brain surgery, medicine, artificial colors and glazes, metallurgy, recrystallization, chemistry, the decimal system, geometry, astronomy, and language and linguistics (systematic linguistic analysis having originated in India with Panini's fourth-century B.C. Sanskrit grammar, the Ashtadhyayi) have led to the practical applications in various allied sectors.

The government’s early 'Scientific Policy Resolution – 1958' states that, 'by all appropriate means, the cultivation of science and scientific research in all its aspects – pure, applied, and educational' should be encouraged. In 1983, the government issued a similar statement, which, while stressing the importance of international cooperation and the diffusion of scientific knowledge, put considerable emphasis on self-reliance and the development of indigenous technology .

The goals are to be achieved restlessly with the cooperation from individuals and institutions as well, so as to make India a prosperous and developed nation in the world.

Useful Links

Department of Science & Technology
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Indian Institutes of Technology, Delhi
National Institutes of Technology , Durgapur
Indian Institute of Science
All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Tata Institute of Fundamental Research
Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics
Indian Space Research Organisation
Defence Research & Development Organization
Bhabha Atomic Research Center
Indian Statistical Institute
Indian Institute of Astro Physics
Forest Research Institute

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